By Georgy A. Martynov (auth.)

Statistical mechanics offers with structures during which chaos and randomness reign excellent. the present conception is consequently firmly in line with the equations of classical mechanics and the postulates of chance concept. This quantity seeks to provide a unified account of classical mechanical information, instead of a set of unconnected studies on contemporary effects. to assist accomplish that, one aspect is emphasized which integrates numerous components of the present concept right into a coherent complete. this can be the hierarchy of the BBGKY equations, which permits a dating to be demonstrated among the Gibbs concept, the liquid idea, and the speculation of nonequilibrium phenomena. because the major concentration is at the complicated theoretical subject material, awareness to purposes is saved to a minimal.

The booklet is split into 3 components. the 1st half describes the basics of the speculation, embracing chaos in dynamic structures and distribution capabilities of dynamic structures. Thermodynamic equilibrium, facing Gibbs statistical mechanics and the statistical mechanics of beverages, types the second one half. finally, the 3rd half concentrates on kinetics, and the idea of nonequilibrium gases and drinks particularly. *Audience:* This booklet might be of curiosity to graduate scholars and researchers whose paintings contains thermophysics, conception of floor phenomena, idea of chemical reactions, actual chemistry and biophysics.

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17) Ar(N) we assurne that ßr(N) (0) at t = 0 coincides with the 'error' region ar(N). It is natural to consider the following question: how will the value of ßr (N)(O) change with time? 18) (the proof of this theorem is given in the comment at the end of the chapter). Hence, the volume of the phase space occupied by the representing points of the bundle of trajectories remains unchanged during the entire duration of the evolution of the system. In other words, representing points form in the phase space a sort of a noncompressible liquid which changes its form in the process of evolution but not its volurne.

It will be shown in the next chapter that the quantum normalization makes it possible to calculate the total values of thermodynamic functions of a system, while the classical normalization gives their increments relative to the ideal gas state. Both normalizations are thus physically meaningful. (4) Total N -particle thermal potential. 11) Q(N» ZeN) where zi~) is a normalization constant. 6) gives (0) ZeN) 1 = ~ reN) 1 exp(Q(N» drl ... drN dPI ... dpN. 13) (that is, going to large dynamic systems with N :::::: 1023 :::::: 00) we obtain Z(O) = Z(qu) = (N) neO) u(N) (N) VN Nl A 3N ( )N Z(cl) -+!...

Assume now that instead of experimenting each time with the same dynamic system, the experimenter has prepared N absolutely identical copies of this system (an 'ensemble of copies'), set them all to the same initial conditions, and 'let go' all N of them at the same moment t = 0; then the quantity ~(t) was measured simultaneously in each copy at a moment t > O. Obviously, the probability determined in this way Pk(t) is identical to that obtainable in aseries of N experiments run consecutively with the same system.