By J. T. Edwards

This paintings comprises contributions from specialists within the box on such facets as direction and station making plans, diaphragm partitions, tunnelling, and civil defence requisites

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On longer lines, a depot situated some distance short of the end of the line may be preferable for operating purposes. The cost would be prohibitive to site these facilities in a bored tunnel but, on completion of depot works constructed on the surface or in open cut, it may be feasible to raft over to enable development to take place, thereby making use of the land taken for the railway works. 1 General Costs associated with an underground railway fall into three categories. First, there is the initial capital cost of construction, second, the ongoing maintenance and running costs and, third, the renewal costs when the assets reach the end of their useful life.

Warning devices, firefighting equipment and emergency communications are all essential for the protection of passengers and staff, but a station's layout and structural design determines whether it is intrinsically safe or dangerous. Inadequate fire resistance of the structural elements and incomplete compartmentation create a potentially hazardous situation, as do narrow platforms and passageways and long, continuous escalators or flights of stairs. During peak periods many thousands of people will enter and leave a mass transit station, and it is important that realistic estimates are made of the flow of passengers before the design is finalized.

1 Principal elements A typical underground station has three main elements: 1. The platform area; 2. The concourse containing ticket-issuing machines and access control; and 3. Offices and equipment rooms not open to the passengers. These are normally arranged in two levels with the platforms at the lower level and the concourse above. 2 Plan and sections of an island platform station constructed by the cut and cover method. The passenger concourse containing ticket machines and entry gates is located at the first level below ground.

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