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Mansion (1945), p. 106, Theiler (1965), p. , on Aristotle's teleology generally - see Sorabji (1980). For discussions of Aristotle's assumptions about nature, see Hintikka (1967), pp. 11-25, A. Mansion (1912), who discusses 'nature' in the Physics, and F. Woodbridge (1940), for 'nature' in the psychological works. e. Guthrie (1969, vol. 3), and G. Kerferd (1981), Ch. 10. e. that standards of beauty and the like are not permanent but only temporary resting places of human agreement. g. NE I. 3 1094 bl5-17), does not do so himself.

There are, to be sure, successive refinements in Aristotle's scheme of constitutional classification as one moves from early books to later ones; democracy, for example, which appears as a single form in Book III, is subdivided into four (or five) subforms (species) in Books IV and VI. This progressive differentiation of forms entails, in turn, a progressive refinement in the methods of constitutional analysis and in the causal explanation for why states differ. But there is nowhere a radical break, nowhere a new doctrine displacing an old, no evidence, that is to say, of a younger 'Platonic' Aristotle giving way to a more mature 'empirical' Aristotle, as is sometimes alleged.

See n. 15. J. Allan (1952), p. ' Allan's point is that the 'practical sciences' necessarily have 'practical' aims; cf. also Lord (1984), Introduction, III. Metaphysics E. i 1025 bl8-28; Topics VI. vi 145 al5-18; NE VII. ii 1139 a26-b4, VII. iv 1140 al-23. Aristotle identifies the 'theoretical sciences' as metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology and the science of the soul. Ethics belongs with politics to the practical sciences. First- and Second-Order Questions in the Politics 21. 22. 23. 24.

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