By Oscar White Muscarella

'Archaeology, Artifacts and Antiquities of the traditional close to East' follows the evolution of the author’s scholarly paintings and pursuits and is split into a number of different types of interrelated fields. the 1st half bargains essentially with excavations and linked artifacts, concerns in historical geography and the id of old websites in northwest Iran, the author’s examine related to the tradition and chronology of the Phrygian capital at Gordion in Anatolia, and the chronology and Iranian cultural kinfolk of a website within the Emirate of Sharjah. half is wide-ranging and contains chapters on Aegean and historic close to jap cultural and political interconnections, the function of fibulae in revealing cultural and chronological concerns, and the gender-determined utilization of parasols and their popularity in excavated contexts. There also are articles particularly desirous about “Plunder tradition” and the forgery of either items and their alleged proveniences.

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19 T. , “A Comparative Ceramic Chronology for Western Iran, 1500–500bc,” Iran 3 (1965) P. 60, fig. 4, no. 10. There are examples from Ziwiye still unpublished. 38 chapter one The most important object from the tomb, and the only one completely preserved, is the feline-headed whetstone-scepter. The head of the feline is stylized and simple in execution, and seems to be pre-Achaemenid in style. 20 A few whetstones of a similar but smaller type are reported from the Minusinsk area in Russia. These have animal heads and were made in one piece.

Test trenches dug around the tumulus confirmed the presence of the revetment around the whole perimeter (Figure 3). 7 7 It has of course occurred to me that the revetments at Sé Girdan may actually have been originally exposed and not covered with earth as they now are: that is, they are covered now by earth from the upper part of the tumulus. However, the upper borders of the revetments are never uniform, and there is no regularity in the manner in which they are laid down: gaps and depressions, and shifts in levels, occur on all tumuli, as may be seen by looking at the sections.

5, note 4; a discussion of Qalatgah by the author will appear in a future issue of Expedition. For a discussion of other Urartian sites in Iranian Azerbaijan see W. Kleiss, “Bericht über zwei Erkundungsfahrten in Nordwest Iran,” Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 2 (1969) pp. ; and W. Kleiss, “Urartäische Plätze in Iranisch-Azerbaijan,” Istanbuler Mitteilungen 18 (1968) pp. 1 ff. 3 The season began on July 17 and ended on August 27. The staff consisted of the author as director and Michael Nimtz (University of Pennsylvania), Karen Rubinson (Columbia University), and Betty Schlossman (Briarcliff College) as archaeologists; Robert Lewis surveyed and oriented the tumuli.

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