By Maaike Groot
This quantity explores the position of animals within the rural groups of Civitas Batavorum within the first to 3rd centuries advert. Large-scale excavations of 2 settlements and a cremation cemetery in Tiel-Passewaaij have yielded an animal bone assemblage of round 30,000 fragments, and a worthwhile reference catalog of the designated animal deposits is incorporated right here. the writer additionally investigates using animals in funerary and different rituals, in addition to the function of farm animals within the neighborhood economic system and within the creation of surplus items for the Roman market.
Read or Download Animals in Ritual and Economy in a Roman Frontier Community: Excavations in Tiel-Passewaaij (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies) PDF
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Additional resources for Animals in Ritual and Economy in a Roman Frontier Community: Excavations in Tiel-Passewaaij (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies)
48 Willems 1990, 79-80, 84. 44 Roymans 2004, 204. 49 Willems 1990, 71. Van Enckevort/Thijssen 2003, 65; Haalebos/Willems 50 Lauwerier 1988, 61-64; Lauwerier 2005, 235. 2005, 52. 51 Filean 2006, 340-341; Lauwerier 2005, 236. 46 Willems 1990, 41. 52 Roymans 2004, 12-13; Roymans/Derks 1994, 14. 47 Van Enckevort/Thijssen 2003, 71. 53 Van Es 1981, 194. 54 The use of sacrificial animals in the temples meant that livestock had to be supplied from the surrounding settlements. 55 1 . 4 . 3 p roductio n : rural settleme n ts The rural settlements in the Eastern Dutch River Area were usually small, with only one to a handful of farmhouses.
1. Numbers of animal bones per phase for the settlements Passewaaijse Hogeweg (PHW) and Oude Tielseweg (OTW). TNF=Total number of fragments per phase, NIF=Number of identified fragments per phase, %=% of identified fragments. 2. Fragmentation of identified bones (cattle, sheep/goat, pig and horse) and the percentage of loose teeth. <25 % means that less than 25 % of the complete bone is present; 25 %: around a quarter of the bone is present; etc. Fragmentation is closely related to the preservation of animal bones.
The flood basins offered plentiful grazing in summer. Livestock would thrive on the rich grassland. Although the surface area was limited, the dry and sandy stream ridges offered fertile ground for arable agriculture. The use of crops adapted to the local environment ensured successful harvests. Rivers could be used as channels for quick and easy communication and transportation of goods. Rivers and natural ponds were suitable for various species of fish. The flood basins and what remained of the riverine forest offered a good habitat for wild mammals, although as we shall see this source of food was only used in a limited way.
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