By H. Ruthenberg

In quantity 2 of the "Afrika-Studien" an appraisal of the rural improvement coverage in Tanganyika (now Tanzania) from 1950 to 1963 was once made. This record is a continuation of the paintings in East Africa, with the emphasis mendacity on a tentative quantitative evaluate of prices and merits of smallholder improvement. There are few nations in Africa south of the Sahara the place as many and as quite a few measures for the merchandising of small­ holder farming were attempted as regularly and intensively as in Kenya. particularly the "Swynnerton Plan" ended in the employment of considerable sums in African farming. many of the methods were hugely good fortune­ ful, others no longer. it's the function of this report back to tell approximately goals and associations, tools and problems, bills and merits. Prof. Dr. EMIL WOERMANN Institut fiir landwirtschaftliche Betriebs- und Landarbeitslehre, Gottingen Acknowledgements As ordinary with studies of this nature, my major debt is to quite a few smallholders, settlers, scheme managers, Agricultural officials and Instruc­ tors who so willingly mentioned their issues of me and therefore supplied the knowledge on which this file is predicated. i'm such a lot thankful for the aid rendered by way of a number of the Departments of the Kenya executive. A debt of gratitude is owed quite to the Fritz Thyssen starting place, Cologne, which supplied the cash and to the Ifo-Institute, Munich, which gives the institutional framework for German fiscal learn paintings in East Africa. most dear suggestion and feedback used to be given via Mr. ]. D.

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E. to land consolidation, extension, small loans etc. Until 1964 land consolidation, for instance, was handled at the provincial and district levels, and administrative officers worked part-time on consolidation along with other duties. The costs of all these services have to be considered "joint inputs". In order to obtain an approximate idea about the relation between benefits and public costs of smallholder development, the available data in three districts, populated by three different tribes, have been collected and interpreted: (1) the Kikuyu in Nyeri District and the Aberdares, (2) the Elgeyo and Marakwet, populating a district named after them, which stretches over tIle Western Rift Valley Escarpment, and (3) the Waluo of Central Nyanza, living close to Lake Victoria.

3 Land reform did not make people landles who used to have rights on the land. Landless people existed before land reform, however, it brought them more clearly into the open. 2 Ruthenberg, Development in Kenya 17 and custom with individual rights to the land cultivated by one family, and communal rights on all grazings including the fallow. With increasing land shortage, people tend to individualize the grazing rights on and around their fields. The next step is the enclosure, i. e. the holding is surrounded by a fence or hedge.

Smallholder production of plantation crops or milk usually shows serious shortcomings: poor yields, poor quality, poor processing and poor prices. Kenya's Department of Agriculture endeavoured to avoid these pitfalls by trying to develop the industry step by step and to remain in full control of all plantings and all grade animals. With coffee the procedure adopted was as follows: - Research was undertaken as regards the appropriate locations and varietIes. This was fairly simple because one could draw on the experience of neighbouring European Coffee estates.

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