By Eric Rosenberg

Whereas unicast routing determines a direction from one resource node to at least one vacation spot node, multicast routing determines a course from one resource to many locations, or from many assets to many locations. We survey multicast routing equipment for whilst the set of locations is static, and for whilst it truly is dynamic. whereas lots of the equipment we overview are tree established, a few non-tree tools also are mentioned. We survey effects at the form of multicast timber, hold up restricted multicast routing, aggregation of multicast site visitors, inter-domain multicast, and multicast digital deepest networks. We concentrate on easy algorithmic ideas, and mathematical types, instead of implementation point protocol info. Many traditionally very important tools, no matter if now not presently used, are reviewed to offer standpoint at the evolution of multicast routing.

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In the original PIM Dense Mode protocol specification, PIM prunes time out after 3 minutes, after which a new broadcast tree is created and pruning starts again. This periodic re-flooding of (s, g) packets to non-receiver nodes is not efficient for high bandwidth streams. In more recent PIM Dense Mode implementations, the source node n(s) periodically sends state-refresh messages down the original broadcast tree as long as s is still sending packets 46 3 Dynamic Routing Methods to g. These state-refresh message reset the PIM timers, so the prunes do not time out [111].

Hence, if some node fails, there will either be a path in T1 from s to n, or a path in T2 from s to n. 5 Network Coding In multicast routing, a node receives a packet on an incoming interface, and replicates the packet, sending it on a set of outgoing interfaces. In unicast routing, there is a single outgoing interface, so no replication is needed. , the outgoing interface list) changes as the packet is forwarded. 5 Network Coding 25 Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung [4], a node receiving packets over several incoming interfaces generates new packets by operating on the bits received over these incoming interfaces.

Destination t1 can determine P from (p5 , p10 ) if and only if M1 is nonsingular, or equivalently, if the determinant det(M1 ) is nonzero. Similarly, t2 can determine P from (p8 , p11) if and only if M2 is non-singular, or equivalently, if det(M2 ) is nonzero. Each of these determinants is a multivariate polynomial in the variables fij . The problem is thus to determine values for the fij variables that make det(M1 ) and det(M2 ) nonzero. 6 Encodings of Multicast Trees 29 values of fij such that det(M1 ) det(M2 ) = 0 whenever the size q of the finite field GF (q) exceeds the maximum degree of det(M1 ) det(M2 ) with respect to any variable fij .

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