By Florian Cajori

Defined even this day as "unsurpassed," this heritage of mathematical notation stretching again to the Babylonians and Egyptians is without doubt one of the so much accomplished written. In awesome volumes-first released in 1928-9-distinguished mathematician Florian Cajori indicates the foundation, evolution, and dissemination of every image and the contest it confronted in its upward push to acceptance or fall into obscurity. Illustrated with greater than 100 diagrams and figures, this "mirror of earlier and current stipulations in arithmetic" will supply scholars and historians an entire new appreciation for "1 + 1 = 2. Swiss-American writer, educator, and mathematician FLORIAN CAJORI (1859-1930) used to be one of many world's such a lot amazing mathematical historians. Appointed to a in particular created chair within the background of arithmetic on the collage of California, Berkeley, he additionally wrote An creation to the speculation of Equations, A heritage of basic arithmetic, and The Chequered profession of Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler.

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The lets metica infinitorum (1655), or, in some cases, the square D "mem" which a square, stand for as ratio continued products he the of ; expresses D 4/3,14149 and also, as William Brounker had done before him, in the form of a Hebrew letter . . closely resembles . continued fraction. Perhaps the earliest use of a single letter to represent the ratio of the length of a circle to its diameter occurs in a work of J. Chr. " Sturm's letter failed of general adoption. Before Sturm the ratio of the length of a circle to its diameter was represented in the fractional form by the use of two letters.

The use of Greek letters in algebraic calculation, which has found wide acceptance among recent mathematicians, cannot in itself encumber the operations in the least. " 2 Charles Babbage 3 at one time suggested the rule that all letters that denote quantity should be printed in italics, but all those which indicate operations should be printed in roman characters. The detailed use of letters letters will try. and of subscripts and superscripts of be treated under the separate topics of algebra and geome- 4 That even highly trained mathematicians may be attracted or by the experience on the theory of repelled by the kind of symbols used is illustrated of Weierstrass who followed Sylvesters papers algebraic forms until Sylvester began to employ Hebrew characters which caused him to quit reading.

270. 7 Daniel Bernoulli in Histoire de VAaMnie r. d. sciences, anne*e 1760 (Paris, 1766;, p. 12. 8 A. Segner, Cursus mathematiti, Paris IV (Halae, 1763), p. 60. C. de Condorcet, Histoire de I'academie, ann