By Paul M. Brown Jr.

Software particular built-in circuits (ASICs), either analog and electronic, became common method point bulding blocks. ASIC owners have tried to supply instruments that they desire will permit fairly green IC designers (i.e. structures engineers) to layout refined customized built-in circuits. This philosophy has been extra winning in electronic know-how than in analog. considerably extra paintings is concerned with analog layout and much fewer automated instruments can be found. nearly each analog ASIC seller deals diversified semiconductor applied sciences, device units, documentation (usually missing intimately and never delivering the correct history and guidelines), and ranging degrees of engineering aid. the result's that many engineers who may well use analog ASICs lack the technical info to take action. they aren't convinced while customized analog ICs are cost-efficient or which seller will top serve their wishes. additionally, many engineers wouldn't have sufficient analog layout event, in particular with built-in circuits. Consqeuently, many that may gain advantage from analog ASIC expertise don't use it whereas others have undesirable reports which may have simply been refrained from.

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It is important to keep this in mind when partitioning a system to define the integrated circuit and when partitioning an integrated circuit into the basic building blocks that will implement the various circuit functions. Significant impacts to the matching and thermal tracking of com­ ponents on a chip can occur due to the orientation of devices and their proximity to thermal sources, especially thermal sources whose power dissipation varies. These issues will be discussed in more detail in the sections on circuit design and circuit layout.

Pinched resistors are basically JFETs with a very high pinch-off voltage and therefore exhibit nonlinear voltage characteristics. The resistor value depends on the basewidth and therefore the beta of npn transistors. Since the top junction of the resistor is an npn emitter-base junction, the breakdown voltage of a pinched resistor is B V , which is typically ebo 46 3. Integrated Circuit Components E m i t t e r diffusion length ,1 1 Τ 1 Resistor body width (a) E p i island Resistor contact contact Oxide η emitter Pinched Resistor region contact jab -ite Aluminum ί -X.

As the reverse bias is increased, the pinching effect also increases. This phenomenon is referred to as basewidth modulation and gives rise to increasing beta with an increasing collector-base reverse bias due to the narrowing of the base region. Typical transistor characteristic curves, as seen on a curve tracer (Figure 3-14) show this as a slope of the curves. The extrapolated x-axis intersection of these curves is referred to as the Early voltage. The tran­ sistor's dynamic output impedance R is expressed as the slope of the V versus I curve.

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