By Christian Puff

Biosystematic reports at the Rubiaceae have a protracted culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this relations the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan participants, are of specific curiosity as a result of a number of elements of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside an differently approximately completely zoophilous kinfolk; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and at last dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. in spite of the fact that, morphological variety associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our knowing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it used to be relevant to place particular emphasis on box observations and to hold out a number of experiments with cultivated crops as well as the research of a tremendous herbarium fabric. the writer, therefore, performed huge box paintings, usually less than very opposed stipulations, and coated such a lot African international locations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this approach a mess of knowledge was once accrued at the team in appreciate to germination and progress shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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Additional info for A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae

Example text

Eventually, however, they cease growth, and near their bases new prostrate long shoots are produced which, in turn, bear short, erect, flowering shoots. It was also observed that such cable-like long shoots can become detached from the "mother plant" and become independent new plants. This may result in the formation of ± large clones of criss-crossing and intermingled long shoot "cables". ) and never become thick and distinctly woody; the growth form of A. ). 1. Short-lived Shrubs ("Woody Herbs") In several taxa, shrub-like plants show a clear trend to and exhibit varying degrees of shortlivedness.

Pumilum subsp. pumilum A. rosmarinus A. streyi A. ternatum subsp. randii subsp. ternatum A. vallicola A. welwitschii 40-50 x 30-40 65-90 x 50-65 55-75 x 35-50 40-50 x 30-40 80-112 x 55-65 56-80 x 50-95 65-110 80-105 x 40-55 40-65 x 25-40 40-65 x 35-50 65-90 x 40-60 50-90 x 30-50 55-90 x 40-60 50-95 x 30-70 55-80 x 40-55 55-75 40-55 40-80 80-120 x 65-80 55-80 x 40-65 65-90 x 50-70 70-95 x 55-70 50-100 x 32-50 50-65 135-160 x 70-100 50-80 x 50 120-160 x 65-90 Galopina aspera G. circaeoides G. crocyllioides 50-65 x 30-40 40--55 x 24-40 50-65 x 35-50 Nenax divaricata N.

General Part 32 fire are frequently unbranched and, furthermore, differ from older, woody branches of un burnt plants (of the same population) in internode length and leaf size and shape. , A. pumilum subsp. pumilum, Fig. 8 a and diagram, Fig. 7 c). Recurrent fires may cause the development of rather extensive, often almost disk-like woody bases ("xylopodia"), which can be up to 5 cm in diam. Such plants can be classified as suffrutices (the term geoxylic suffrutices should perhaps be avoided as it usually refers to the presence of massive, woody subterranean structures such as the "lignotubers" of Leucospermum sect.

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